Glossary

Innovative Materials

Abrasives

Bonded abrasives: natural or synthetic grains molded into numerous shapes of grinding wheels.

Coated abrasives: brasives manufactured by coating a flexible backing with natural or synthetic abrasive grains which is cut into a variety of shapes.

Industrial superabrasives: abrasives manufactured using the world's hardest materials: diamond or cubic boron nitride. They are used to shape materials that are too hard or too fragile for conventional abrasives.

Ceramics

Refractories: industrial ceramics manufactured from raw materials : alumina, zirconia, silicon carbide, etc. : designed to withstand extreme conditions of mechanical stress, temperature and chemical aggression.

Silicon carbide: synthetic material made from petroleum coke, sand and energy with an outstanding hardness, only superseded by diamond, cubic boron nitride and boron carbide.

Crystals

Scintillators: crystals which emit light when irradiated by high:energy photons, neutrons or X:rays, are used in a variety of applications as radiation detectors.

Light emitting diodes: a solid:state semiconductor device that converts electrical energy directly into light. The composition of the semiconducting materials in the device determines the wavelength and therefore the color of the light generate

Crucibles: materials which are used for pulling silicon, which is the first step in the manufacture of wafers used for semiconductors.

Fluorescence: crystal excitation with ultraviolet light (instead of a radioactive source).

Grains & Powders

Ceramic proppants: beads used to boost the yield from oil and gas wells.

Thermal spray: a coating technique which melts and sprays material - ceramics, metals or plastics - onto a backing. This process results in excellent resistance to wear, heat and corrosion.

Plastics

Molding: action which consists of introducing a cold material into heated a mold.

Specialty coated fabrics: fabrics which use different materials as woven fiberglass, coated or laminated with thermoplastic, foams or specialty films and with are designed for extreme environments. They offer remarkable physical properties.

Textile Solutions

Wall coverings: glass fibre decorative fabric made of special yarns in warp and weft, which guarantee the required plastic effect of many patterns.

Fibre glass: glass which has been extruded into extremely fine filaments. Glass filaments are treated with special binders and processed similar to textile fibers.

Flat glass

Acid-etched glass: Satin-like, translucent glass manufactured by acid-etching one surface of the glass.

Acoustic PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral): A special plastic interlayer incorporated into laminated glass in order to significantly reduce noise as well as providing safe breakage characteristics to the glass.

Argon gas: Inert gas used to fill the cavity within a low-emissivity (low-E) double-glazed unit to further improve its thermal performance.

Emissivity: Emissivity is a surface characteristic of a material. It is the relative ability of a surface to absorb and emit energy in the form of radiation. Low-emissivity (Low-E) coatings reduce the normally relatively high surface emissivity of the glass. The coatings are mainly transparent over the visible wavelengths but reflect long wave infra-red radiation towards the interior of the building.

Enhanced thermal insulation: Conventional double glazing provides thermal insulation. Double glazing comprising a low-emissivity glass provides enhanced thermal insulation.

Float glass: Process for producing flat glass in which molten glass is floated on a bed of molten tin. The glass is then cut by machines on the cold end of the line.

Float glass: High quality, transparent flat glass manufactured by means of the float tank procedure that is floating molten glass on a "tin-bath" at extremely high temperature.

Laminated glass / laminate / laminating: Two or more sheets of annealed or heat treated glass are separated by one or more plastic interlayers (normally PVB) and subjected to heat and pressure, in order to ensure perfect adhesion between constituent elements.

Patterned glass: Translucent patterned glass, manufactured by rolling heat-softened glass between embossed cylinders.

Self-cleaning glass: Property of glass with a photocatalytic and hydrophilic coating. The coating harnesses the dual-action of UV light and rain (or water) to break down organic dirt and reduce the adherence of mineral material. The glass stays cleaner for longer and is easier to clean.

Silvering or silvered glass: A process used in the manufacture of mirrors, whereby a silver coating is applied to one surface of the glass.

Solar factor "g": The percentage of total solar radiant heat energy transmitted through glazing (the sum of energy transmitted directly and energy absorbed and re-emitted to the interior).